Pierwszym etapem pracy w ramach projektu Comenius jest prezentacja rodzimych miast i regionów w odniesieniu do średniowiecza. Oto prace, które wykonali uczniowie naszej szkoły.Ponizej zamieszczono prace uczniów naszej szkoły.
The District of Grudziądz in Prehistoric and Medieval Times
In the area of the present district of Grudziądz, the first groups of human beings appeared just after the withdrawal of the Scandinavian glacier, i.e. about 10 000 years ago. Hunting for reindeers heading north, they made camps in the valleys of large rivers, among others, near Grudziądz-Mniszek, wherefrom the traces of their stay are known.
At the beginning of the 9th millennium, when the climate started to get warmer, new groups of game shooters, fishermen and pickers of forest fruit appeared. In the valley of the Wisła from Chełmno to Grudziądz, hunters together with families made small camps, and their largest number was discovered also in Grudziądz-Mniszek.
The first groups of farmers and breeders came to Chełmno Land from the areas on the Danube in the mid-5th millennium before Christ. They could grow wheat, barley, millet and flax as well as breed cows, sheep and goats. They brought with them skills unknown before, such as clay earthenware modelling, polishing stone tools, drilling holes and manufacturing wool and linen fabrics. The largest gathering of settlements set up by the first farmers was located in the environs of Lake Mełno in the localities of: Gruta, Boguszewo and Linowo. From the agricultural culture centres comes, among other things, a clay figure of a woman uncovered on an island on Lake Łasin - the only artefact of this type found in Poland.
The last century of the old era is related to an extensive northward expansion of the powerful Roman Empire. The growth in importance of far-reaching commercial exchange contributed to commercial routes being created, and owing to the demand for the Baltic amber, the so-called amber route was commenced. The northern section of this route ran along the Wisła Valley, and in the neighbourhood of Grudziądz, a large number of settlements and cemeteries were found (Marusza, Ruda, Zielnowo, Wielki Wełcz). One of the largest cemeteries in Poland from more than 2000 years ago was located close to the present Rządz Housing Estate in Grudziądz.
The migrations of people (among others of the Huns), the collapse of the Roman Empire (375 after Christ) - these events had an impact on settling regression in the afore-mentioned area. After this period of time, it was in the early Middle Ages (from the 7th Century to the 2nd half of the 13th Century) that the settling process was re-intensified again in Chełmno Land and also in Grudziądz District. Its residents may be incorporated into the ‘Kuyavian’ group, common, among other things, for Kuyavia, Chełmno Land and the Wisła belt. Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the above mentioned area was incorporated into the Polan State which was being created. This fact is documented by archaeological sources revealed in the area of Grudziądz District. The town settlements in Gawłowice, Radzyń Chełmiński, Gołębiewek, Mełno, Słupski Młyn and Wydrzno are particularly important. In the light of the latest research, in the early Piast period, they were a key link for the land far-reaching route, leading through Chełmno Land and joining Great Poland (Wielkopolska) and Kuyavia with Pomerania. In the 12th Century, a network of town settlements was also created on the line of the Osa, the Lutryna and the Drwęca [Rogóźno, Słupski Młyn (the 2nd town phase), Mędrzyce, Świecie on the Osa and further on Jabłonowo Pomorskie and Jaguszewice. These settlements were centres of territorial communes and their founding was also dictated by strategic reasons (Polish-Prussian borders).
In the Late Medieval Period (from the 2nd half of the 13th Century to the 15th Century), as a result of progressing feudalization and private land properties being created, their owners - at the beginning magnates, followed by the social class of knights - erected strongholds as the main seats for their real estates. In the case of Grudziądz District, archaeologists examined a few of such defensive castles, three of which belonged to the knights, at least periodically. The only Late Medieval Teutonic Knights’ rural stronghold is depicted by research results of Gruta settlement. The most effective and the best recognized archaeological researches come from the knight settlement of Plemięty. Their result was the uncovering of the ground level part of an inhabited tower which had not been found earlier in any similar excavations in Poland. As it was not possible to maintain the relict of this fortification, and create an ‘in situ’ archaeological skansen, the uncovered ground level part was reconstructed in its natural size at the exhibition in the Grudziądz Museum Halls. Furthermore, this exposition represents an extremely rich collection of artefacts, which totals over one thousand exhibits. We could venture a hypothesis that it includes complete belongings of a town’s inhabitants at the moment when it was destroyed which may be linked to the events of the so-called Hunger War, which was waged by Jagiełło armies against the Teutonic Knights’ Order in 1414.